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������ 2020-2-14 19:05:59 | ֻ�������� �������� |������� |�Ķ�ģʽ
�����Ķ��������и������е���Ҫ���֣���Ҫ�и��ø߷��Ķ����ֱ���Ҫ���ӣ��������һЩ�Ķ���ֵļ���Ҳ�Ƿdz��б�Ҫ�ģ��������Ҵ������и�����������ùؼ��ʡ�

�����и������Ķ�����һƪ����һ��ϳ�������һ�����Զ���Ϊ��λ�ġ���ʱ����ܻ���ѧ��˵�������ʱ�򲢲���ȥ�����ΰ���������ѧ��˵�ҿ����˰�������Ŀ����û���԰�����ʵ�������Ķ�һ������ʱҪѧ��ʹ�÷�������ʲô�������԰������ǿ����Ķ��أ�

����Ҫ����һ����������ֻ��Ҫץס�����ؼ��ʶ��ѡ���ô�ؼ�����ôץ�أ�һ�ǿ��߼��źŴʣ����Ƕ����ӵ�ʱ��һ���μ�ֻ�����ɣ��������Ǿ����и�TPO25�е�����The Decline of Venetian ShippingΪ����˵˵�����ץ�ؼ��ʡ�

����TPO25-2 The Decline of Venetian Shipping��

����Paragraph 2 This decline can be seen clearly in the changes that affected Venetian shipping and trade. First�� Venic��s intermediary functions in the Adriatic Sea�� where it had dominated the business of shipping for other parties�� were lost to direct trading. In the fifteenth century there was little problem recruiting sailors to row the galleys (large ships propelled by oars)�� guilds (business associations) were required to provide rowers�� and through a draft system free citizens served compulsorily when called for. In the early sixteenth century the shortage of rowers was not serious because the demand for galleys was limited by a move to round ships (round-hulled ships with more cargo space)�� with required fewer rowers. But the shortage of crews proved to be a greater and greater problem�� despite continuous appeal to Venic��s tradition of maritime greatness. Even though sailors�� wages doubled among the northern Italian cities from 1550 to 1590�� this did not elicit an increased supply.

����������������и��Ķ��нϳ��Ķ����ˣ��ڿ����Ķ���������ʱ������Ҫ�ҵĹؼ����ǣ��߼��źŴ�-�����������ʾ��first�� but�� this�� ���Dz��ѷ�����Щ�źŴ����ڵľ��ӻ������ǽ������Ϣ�㡣��ô�����ⶨλʱ����������⡣��Ȼ��ץס��Щ�ؼ��ʲ����ѣ�������⡣

�������������Ǿ������������Щ����ʱ�Ĺؼ��ʡ�ÿ�λ����׾��DZض�Ҫ���ġ�This decline can be seen clearly in the changes that affected Venetian shipping and trade�����ǰ�����һ������Ӿ�ĸ��Ӿ䡣�ȿ������Ĵ�changes���ٿ���Venetian shipping and trade����ƪ���½���������Ҫд�����ݾ�չ¶���ţ�Ҳ��������˹��ҵ��ó�׵ı�Ǩ��

����First���⵱Ȼ�ǿ�ʼдshipping�ı�־�ˡ�Venice��s intermediary functions in the Adriatic Sea�� where it had dominated the business of shipping for other parties�� were lost to direct trading. ����һֱǿ������Ҫ�����ɣ���ô�򵥵ؿ�������Ӿ���Venice��s functions were lost�� ���Ĵʺ���Ȼ��lost��Ҳ��Ӧ����ƪ���µ����� decline. ����������д����15��16���������Ĵ�Ա���е����⡣��there was little problem recruiting sailors to row the galleys (large ships propelled by oars)�� guilds (business associations) were required to provide rowers�� and through a draft system free citizens served compulsorily when called for. ��仰����ð�ŵij��֣��Ķ�ð��֮ǰ������there was little problem������һ�䣺the shortage of rowers was not serious because the demand for galleys was limited by a move to round ships (round-hulled ships with more cargo space)�� with required fewer rowers. �����Ҫ�����ĺ�����not serious�������󿴵�But��.to be a greater and greater problem. ��������˼Ӧ���Ѿ�һĿ��Ȼ�ˣ����ǽ�����˹��ҵ����Ƹ��Ա�����������ı�Ǩ��little problem-not serious -greater problem.

�����ղ����ǽ��������Ķ�����Ҫץ�ؼ��ʣ���ʵ�������Ķ���Ŀ��ѡ��ʱҲ����ҪѰ�ҹؼ��ʵġ���Щ��Ŀ��ѡ���DZȽϳ��ģ��ĸ�ѡ���ȥҲ���һ�λ��ˣ�����һ��Ҫץס�ؼ����жϲ��У���񶨴ʡ��ȽϴʺͲ��дʡ���Щ�ǿ������ѡ��ĵ�һ�����ٴ�ҲҪ������ɺ�ÿ��ѡ�����������ǿ��ٶ�λ��ԭ�ĵĹؼ��ʡ����ǻ������и�TPO25Ϊ����

����TPO25-1 The Surface of Mars

����Paragraph 5 As on the Moon�� the extent of large impact cratering (i.e. craters too big to have been filled in by erosion since they were formed) serves as an age indicator for the Martian surface. Age estimates ranging from four billion years for Mars��s southern highlands to a few hundred million years in the youngest volcanic areas were obtained in this way��

����According to paragraph 5�� what have scientists been able to determine from studies of large impact cratering on Mars��

����A. Some Martian volcanoes are much older than was once thought��

����B. The age of Mars��s surface can vary from area to area��

����C. Large impact craters are not reliable indicators of age in areas with high volcanic activity��

����D. Some areas of the Martian surface appear to be older than they actually are��

��������ѡ���еĹؼ��ʺ󣬶�λ��ԭ��Ѹ���������ԭ���в�����A��Dѡ���еıȽϣ�C�еķ񶨴�not��ԭ����������ì�ܵģ��ʶ�ѡ��B����Bѡ���Ӧ��ǡ���DZ���ĩ�䣺Age estimates ranging from four billion years for Mars��s southern highlands to a few hundred million years in the youngest volcanic areas were obtained in this way��

�����������Ϸ���������Ӧ���������Ķ�֮ʱ��Ϊ�ؼ��ʡ��򵥵ؽ��ж�λ�ؼ��ʺ��жϹؼ��ʡ���λ�ؼ��ʰ�����ɼ�ѡ���е����ʣ����о��Ƕ�������Щһֱ����ʾ�õ��߼��źŴ��ˣ���Ҫ�����������ҵ��������Ҫ����Ϣ���жϹؼ�����ѡ������Щ����ɫ�Ĵʻ㣬�����񶨴ʣ��Ƚϴʻ����Ǿ��������еĶ��ʵȣ�������Щ�ʺ�ԭ�Ľ��ж�Ӧ��������һ���ѡ�����Ѹ�ٱ��ų���

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